Creepy Assistant: Development and Validation of a Scale to Measure the Perceived Creepiness of Voice Assistants


Voice assistants have afforded users rich interaction opportunities to access information and issue commands in a variety of contexts. However, some users feel uneasy or creeped out by voice assistants, leading to a decreased desire to use them. As there has yet to be a comprehensive understanding of the factors that cause users to perceive voice assistants as being creepy, this research developed an empirical scale to measure the creepiness inherent in various voice assistants. Utilizing prior scale creation methodologies, a 7-item Perceived Creepiness of Voice Assistants Scale (PCAS) was created and validated. The scale measures how creepy a new voice assistant would be for users of voice assistants. The scale was developed to ensure that researchers and designers can evaluate the next generation of voice assistants before such voice assistants are released to the wider public.

In Proceedings of the 2023 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), 2023